Launch of Linino.org
Launch of Linino.org
If you have bought a Arduino Yun board and you want to upgrade your board to LininoIO, you must first upgrade your on-board OS from Openwrt-Yun to LininoOS as described here :
Once completed this first part, you will be able to proceed to the following steps…
What changes if you install LininoIO? With LininoIO you don't need to write your C code application for the MCU.
It is enough to install LininoIO on the MCU side and all of the functionalities, like GPIO, ADC, PWM, I2C, etc. will be exported onto the LininoOS.
To install LininoIO we need to:
Load the firmware into your board on the MCU to have the Linux serial console available on the USB connection. This can help in case of issues arising during the upgrade. If you have a LininoOS installed on your YÚN or LininoONE, connect to the board through an SSH connection, for example:
[your PC] > ssh email@example.com or ssh firstname.lastname@example.org
to upgrade the firmware on the MCU (Atmel 32U4) run the following command:
For Arduino YÚN:
$ run-avrdude /etc/linino/YunSerialTerminal.hex
For Linino ONE:
$ run-avrdude /etc/linino/LininoOneSerialTerminal.hex
If terminal show all gibberish, try key combination ~1, ~2 to switch to 115200 or 25000 bauds.
If you don't have the latest image of LininoOS installed or you have the Arduino OpenWRT distribution, please download and install the serial terminal:
cd /tmp wget http://donwload.linino.org/pkg-bin/serialTerminal.hex run-avrdude /tmp/serialTerminal.hex
If you are using Arduino IDE, load onto the Arduino YÚN or Linino ONE the example YunSerialTerminal under the Bridge examples. This might save your board if, by any chance, something goes wrong.
To be able to run this howto you must have an Ethernet connection.
Once connected by means of the Arduino IDE or of a serial terminal as cu or minicom (i.e.) :
sudo cu -l /dev/ttyACM0 -s 115200
(if you use MACOSX 10.9.4, you must use this path: /dev/tty.usbmodem1411 ) push the Linux reset button and type lin to stop the boot of the Linux cpu.
You will be presented with the following output :
Linino Board (ar9331) U-boot DRAM: 64 MB Top of RAM usable for U-Boot at: 84000000 Reserving 142k for U-Boot at: 83fdc000 Reserving 192k for malloc() at: 83fac000 Reserving 44 Bytes for Board Info at: 83fabfd4 Reserving 36 Bytes for Global Data at: 83fabfb0 Reserving 128k for boot params() at: 83f8bfb0 Stack Pointer at: 83f8bf98 Now running in RAM - U-Boot at: 83fdc000 Flash Manuf Id 0xef, DeviceId0 0x40, DeviceId1 0x18 flash size 16777216, sector count = 256 Flash: 16 MB Using default environment In: serial Out: serial Err: serial Net: ag7240_enet_initialize... No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address : cfg1 0x5 cfg2 0x7114 eth0: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad eth0 up : cfg1 0xf cfg2 0x7214 eth1: 00:03:7f:09:0b:ad athrs26_reg_init_lan ATHRS26: resetting s26 ATHRS26: s26 reset done eth1 up eth0, eth1 Hit any key to stop autoboot: 0 linino>
If the output you obtain is not the same, you may have an old version of the U-Boot that doesn't permit to save the U-Boot environment. To use LininoIO you need to upgrade the U-Boot following the following instructions.
setenv serverip <tftp-server-ip>; setenv ipaddr <linino-board-ip>;
on my setup I have:
server ip address: 192.168.0.101 linino board ip address: 192.168.0.120
ar7240> setenv ipaddr 192.168.0.120; ar7240> ping 192.168.0.101 dup 1 speed 100 Using eth0 device host 192.168.0.18 is alive ar7240> setenv serverip 192.168.0.101; ar7240> setenv ipaddr 192.168.0.120; ar7240> tftp 0x80060000 openwrt-ar71xx-generic-linino-u-boot.bin; Using eth0 device TFTP from server 192.168.0.18; our IP address is 192.168.0.23 Filename 'openwrt-ar71xx-generic-linino-u-boot.bin' Load address: 0x80060000 Loading: #################################### done Bytes transferred = 181852 (2c65c hex)
DON'T type the following command if the tftp failed!
ar7240> erase 0x9f000000 +0x40000; Erase Flash from 0x9f000000 to 0x9f03ffff in Bank # First 0x0 last 0x3 sector size 0x10000 3 Erased 4 sectors ar7240> cp.b $fileaddr 0x9f000000 $filesize; Copy to Flash... write addr: 9f000000 done
Congratulations! The new U-Boot is ready! Please reboot and proceed to install the new kernel image where the cmdline is taken from the U-Boot.
By default the new boots use the 115200 baud rate but the serial console on the MCU uses by default 250k. Please use the key combination ~1, ~2 to switch to 115200 or 25000 bauds.
U-Boot 1.1.4-linino-g033da82e-dirty (Jun 16 2014 - 23:37:27) Linino Board (ar9331) U-boot DRAM: 64 MB Top of RAM usable for U-Boot at: 84000000 Reserving 217k for U-Boot at: 83fc8000 Reserving 192k for malloc() at: 83f98000 Reserving 44 Bytes for Board Info at: 83f97fd4 Reserving 36 Bytes for Global Data at: 83f97fb0 Reserving 128k for boot params() at: 83f77fb0 Stack Pointer at: 83f77f98 Now running in RAM - U-Boot at: 83fc8000 Flash Manuf Id 0xef, DeviceId0 0x40, DeviceId1 0x18 flash size 16777216, sector count = 256 Flash: 16 MB *** Warning - bad CRC, using default environment In: serial Out: serial Err: serial Net: eth0: b4:21:8a:00:00:00 eth1: b4:21:8a:00:00:01 eth0, eth1 autoboot in 4 seconds (stop with 'lin')... linino>
You can check the old configuration typing the following command:
linino> printenv bootargs=console=ttyATH0,115200 board=linino-yun mem=64M rootfstype=squashfs,jffs2 noinitrd mtdparts=spi0.0:25 6k(u-boot)ro,64k(u-boot-env)ro,14656k(rootfs),1280k(kernel),64k(nvram),64k(art),15936k@0x50000(firmware) bootcmd=bootm 0x9fea0000 bootdelay=4 baudrate=115200 ethaddr=0xb4:0x21:0x8a:0x00:0x00:0x10 ipaddr=192.168.1.2 serverip=192.168.1.1 stdin=serial stdout=serial stderr=serial ethact=eth0 Environment size: 399/65532 bytes linino>
Set properly the booargs, putting the console=spicons : For the ArduinoYÚN board:
linino> setenv bootargs 'console=spicons board=linino-yun mtdparts=spi0.0:256k(u-boot)ro,64k(u-boot-env),14656k(rootfs),1280k(kernel),64k(nvram),64k(art),15936k@0x50000(firmware) mem=64M rootfstype=squashfs,jffs2 noinitrd'
For the LininoONE board:
linino> setenv bootargs 'console=spicons board=linino-one mtdparts=spi0.0:256k(u-boot)ro,64k(u-boot-env),14656k(rootfs),1280k(kernel),64k(nvram),64k(art),15936k@0x50000(firmware) mem=64M rootfstype=squashfs,jffs2 noinitrd'
Set the proper baudrate:
linino> setenv baudrate 250000 --change the baudrate then press Enter--
You will probably be asked to change your baudrate to 250k, especially if you are working with serial terminals such as cu or minicom: type : ~2 ,where the first tilde works as an escape character. Then save your new environment with:
linino> saveenv; Saving Environment to Flash... Protect off 9F040000 ... 9F04FFFF Un-Protecting sectors 4..4 in bank 1 Un-Protected 1 sectors Erasing Flash...Erase Flash from 0x9f040000 to 0x9f04ffff in Bank # 1 First 0x4 last 0x4 sector size 0x10000 4 Erased 1 sectors Writing to Flash... write addr: 9f040000 done Protecting sectors 4..4 in bank 1 Protected 1 sectors linino> printenv bootcmd=bootm 0x9fea0000 bootdelay=4 baudrate=250000 ethaddr=0xb4:0x21:0x8a:0x00:0x00:0x10 ipaddr=192.168.1.2 serverip=192.168.1.1 stdin=serial stdout=serial stderr=serial ethact=eth0 bootargs=console=spicons board=linino-yun mtdparts=spi0.0:256k(u-boot)ro,64k(u-boot-env),14656k(rootfs),1280k(k ernel),64k(nvram),64k(art),15936k@0x50000(firmware) mem=64M rootfstype=squashfs,jffs2 noinitrd rootfstype=squa shfs,jffs2 noinitrd Environment size: 424/65532 bytes linino> reset
Update the Linino image using the following commands:
For Arduino YÚN
cd /tmp wget http://download.linino.org/linino_distro/lininoIO/latest/lininoIO-generic-linino-yun-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin sysupgrade -n -v lininoIO-generic-linino-yun-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin
For Linino ONE:
cd /tmp wget http://download.linino.org/linino_distro/lininoIO/latest/lininoIO-generic-linino-one-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin sysupgrade -n -v lininoIO-generic-linino-one-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin
Connect to the board by means of SSH: SSH email@example.com or discover the IP assigned by DHCP to your board and install LininoIO on the MCU:
run-avrdude /etc/linino/bathos-one.hex reboot && exit
then perform a reset of both MCU and MIPS or unplug the board and plug it again.
The Linux console from both the USB port and the SSH is now available ! ! !
PAY ATTENTION : if the user makes a mistake and gets a mismatch between the mcu firmware and the u-boot baudrates, they will panic because the u-boot cmd line is not reachable any more. However, a workaround is still possible if your board boots and you can reach it by ssh. You can still change the u-boot baudrate by means of the Linux userspace fw_printenv and fw_setenv commands (i.e.):
fw_setenv baudrate 250000
On the latest image of LininoIO it is possible to read the build information of the image itself by using the command
root@linino:/# cat /etc/linino_version DISTRIB_ID="Linino" DISTRIB_RELEASE="lininoIO" DISTRIB_REVISION="0c1bd59" DISTRIB_CODENAME="attitude_adjustment" DISTRIB_TARGET="ar71xx/generic" BUILD_DATE="2014-09-16"
to upgrade the image to the latest one, use the command linup:
USAGE : linup <revision> ( latest or YYYYMMDD.x where x=0,1,2...n ) \ <branch> ( optional : lininoIO or master ) root@linino:/# linup latest
If on your distribution the file /etc/linino_version is not preset, then you need to specify in what release of Linino you are interested. Use the following command to upgrade the board:
root@linino:/# linup latest lininoIO
the current branch is master Verifying internet connection... The current kernel date is : 01 08 2014 Linino OS image date is : 15 09 2014 A new upgrade is available for your system ! Do you want to upgrade your board now ? (y/n) Connecting to download.linino.org (220.127.116.11:80) openwrt-ar71xx-gener 100% |*******************************| 15696k 0:00:00 ETA Calculating MD5 checksums... lininoIO-generic-linino-yun-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin: OK 1. Upgrade and keep your current setting 2. Upgrade and revert to default settings 0. Exit Choose :
Press 1 to upgrade the image keeping your settings and configuration. Press 2 to upgrade the image reverting the setting to the factory default.
The firmware will be upgraded and the board will reboot with the new enhanced version of LininoOS.
Once rebooted and logged again in by means of SSH, you have to perform the final step by running the lininoio script to fully enable the lininoIO functionalities :
$ lininoio -h USAGE : lininoio <-f> <start/stop> - enables/disable the LininoIO features with the optional `force` switch lininoio -v : prints out the versioning details of the LininoIO operating system lininoio -s : shows the current status of the LininoIO features (ENABLED/DISABLED) lininoio -h : prints out this HELP
please also pay attention to the fact that you have to run this script when logged in by means of SSH otherwise you might damage your board. So once gained root access at the shell type :
$ lininoio start
and a disclaimer will appear :
WARNING ! Please be sure to run lininoio when connected by means of SSH to your board, otherwise you could damage your board ! Do you want to proceed ? [y/n]
then answer YES (y) and another question will pop-up before starting the actual process :
Do you want to enable the LininoIO OS features ? [y/n]
and answer YES (y) again. At the end of the process you will be asked to reboot your board, just answer YES (y) one more time and then wait a couple of minutes before logging in again.